Feb 27, 2014|
Garland talks with Scientific American associate editor Dina Fine Maron about how technology could cure unborn children of diseases.
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Automatically Generated Transcript (may not be 100% accurate)
It's our it's something -- -- and fascinating. There's. -- a broad primarily and -- and -- the current and but it. Basically. If I understand correctly and I mean -- On the of their there's been so him. It's in fighting might -- This this progress. If -- implemented. Did some war is actually allowed to take its course. Could all people with Mike for my for my idol -- -- disease. To have disease free -- children thanks to a third party problems. Their genetic mid -- 03 adults combine them and they've. -- nuclear deal and they -- -- And mitochondria DNA from a donor. Tool -- in in current two blown disease. Spare film is from passing down -- So. Veterans in the we will expert -- and the group in Maryland. Or winning associate editors Scientific American didn't -- sure appreciate it. -- Probably better understand -- wouldn't when I've. -- little reading. Owen who gets this from what happens. If it doesn't look like this happened to many people number one and and those that do get here agreed everything prone. Bill usually die for fiber -- -- But that I hear their live longer. They often suffer blindness seizures. Gas -- intestinal disease as. Heartbreak can be regulated temperatures can be regulated black out in pain. It is that some batteries short term with the near death. Ending or is or something big carry throughout their line. A complex question when you're talking about genetically inherited mitochondria conceded they anchor in. One in every 5005. Per cent making it vary in -- and and that can be. Resulting in -- features other counties death as he talked about. It's really get -- whole gamut here by an issue here isn't reproductive technology drawn from 1983. To pitch like -- day. And the approach -- design didn't need to allow moms have genetically related offspring while sidestepping that threat passing on these genetically inherited competed. They come from mutations can mitochondria the cell battery packs. And and everything are reasons for those that are against that goes back to -- you'll. So -- slow soon -- neither of they're talking about that. We're creating designer babies -- accrue to big trickled through intelligent athletic ability I've caller. Could child even down to the -- and concerns of -- effort of keeping up with the neighbors. To read the best shot is is that what the concern is resume. More complicated than. Why did he mean concern that has been able by critics said the procedure. What we're talking about here from a technical perspective is something called a modification and literally modify -- -- -- And that approach to content nickname every parent -- because what they did. It in the US the -- church -- -- Out potentially mutated mitochondria DNA from the -- take at least in my country championing an unaffected don't women. And then take external lines that sperm and Clinton mom or you could do that spot after fertilization occurred and the Caribbean plate and mom like normal. Another -- met some people find controversial. That it indeed because you line. -- could be in game plan. That any -- that could be some sort of likely to attack. Once you -- this procedure what to say that in the future we could not to. Electric company indeed like intelligent athletic ability and so forth but we're really long -- from. Both from. A clinical trial perspective in humans just -- text he's been discussing this last week. And from a that technical perspective as well. But I've talked to medical problems and prudent children. With the donor sperm and you don't -- And do what I assume how to go about it so while we. Looking for a guy as good look and sometimes we look for -- colors will be like cowards and I don't we want somebody nice looking we don't somebody probably won't somebody a legitimate. Somebody that's not that -- and we -- virtually doing the same thing there. Clinically about that I mean I think that some people feel more comfortable that. Process stand -- he'd -- gleaned from things like that you know laboratory settings. Where you would be. It's like artificially selecting for them at the post Q what one might he was natural -- election cheating either romantic partner or -- partner. Or posted the duke doing it is it is a slippery slope. And have a more whole a whole lot more scientific -- to -- Mike portion would be. Here you -- -- do this because of the slippery slope. If somebody is born and in pain going blind and stone would pay in -- rate that can't regulate temperature you can Bradley blacked out for him regularly. And this process would lead yet it is and in. A long the world hurts and so to speak. Wouldn't we do. I have a complex question to answer I mean first -- it is and the procedure that would. Because that child he will already sick this would be something Q. Upstream -- processed before a child -- born to make sure that they don't inherit a piece indicated. Mitochondria. You tend to -- then there's some cured him. Before they get. Bright. It's to reduce the risk of them getting it yet exactly. The. Wouldn't we wouldn't we use that same process if you -- care and even minimized the risk of -- person march analysts cure them that that's part of don't quite get. Right since then my -- detainees from going to turn down on the eternally from the mothers on DNA. -- -- among the nuclear genome which is derived from both taken sperm at fertilization. But it content European made an embryo and extract on the exclusively from excel. Extra moms that the idea behind this procedure. It can make sure mom did not turn down that he's taken mitochondria DNA. Syndicate -- beat this procedure worked according to plan would not developed any of these conditions that your talking about. And that's the appeal. All right well it's a -- break when we come right back. Understand there was hearings or debate on this yesterday gave Portland so and -- -- -- information on that. You think out there. This is about a Bill Gates nobody moral the media. I'm -- person reviewed talk show host but I would submit. -- be an abuse that I didn't scientists. And engineers and doctors and experts from all over the world of yours. Just. One and accurately probably pop businesses in the world. Talking about being able to download our brains of computers. In the future talking about. Even Steven hawking has chipped in news in. It corresponds bureaucracy and spills were more good news. Chipper is wearing looks at the square he thinks about the lettering on spike in -- was only thinking. And there's their support for searchers over the changes so what science. That expanding. At X but didn't -- speed. Rico laws. And -- dealings as forgiving when a bomb and in this this is minor I think in in that old school but I I think it's one of the things. It leads in to a there's -- media called. Babies with three parents. But they're talking about it to a genetic a true result combined to make one hell he. Bombs nuclear -- and they -- super. In the medical and -- and they promoted to older tool of war. And in her notable for the disease. Spare apparently from sort. Two Barbara understand that we have an expert with the do you know upon owned award winning associate editor. Scientific American. I'd forgot to ask you when you make -- do you do you see this is as slippery slope you -- this is something. That needs more search. Or do you concede this is something that can alleviate suffering in should be done. The committee members from asking me this week are much better points away in time -- and their general conclusions so finally that. Indeed this scientist not quite there yet to for us to engage in clinical trials on this issue. There has been some research on board -- so far. Don't give this same procedure on Montes. And five monkeys worm burst through this process can make to be healthy adults so we get the free. A lot of trepidation in the scientific perspective now. It wondering about if there are sort of unseen consequences for future generations. Once these monkeys have children and then there and then those monkeys have children a couple of generations down the line. Could they still he abnormal mitochondria overlooking them but can he can't I'm sort of the patients. On exit brittle in part helped. Have you talked to him but he read anything that says. Okay it's six generations of monkeys. War. Further genetic testing the -- -- hood revealed the results of ABC. The mood tribe -- one trial and how does that how -- we get to a point where science or or regulations says okay let's try. He had -- out like a critical child would look like and when we're ready for you. This mandate of the advisory committee and and that's kind of such a tough question trying to hit on it like to be armed as much information as possible and try monkeys for example if you had several generations we're at eight and now with. Ideal but it monkeys little long time and he took a long time to either multiple generations. And that's one of the attractions of looking at other animal model for -- money. Man lives and we produced in time so quickly. Com or maybe looking at -- because Napier aches and somewhat similar to human and -- it's really complicated to tried it at night when it comes off you. Even her once -- say that that. He thought that would and number of people against this also looking for a old genetically. Altered sperm or age all that were being -- abuses in the in the. -- don't think that Elliott tops in the mainstream. In the mainstream scientific conversation anymore now. -- It it is there any thought that these procedures and what they've found so far. Alleviate the suffering of people with the disease. It means so that it mentioning may result from monkeys and would -- indicated mitochondria that they were able to love her this process. It'll have been some promising Laporte and to both in the US and in the UK indicate that indeed. It greatly reduce the risk of passing on this mutated mitochondria. Now we don't know for sure it would be a 100%. Where the data to scientists now is not. Well if you have this procedure a 100% will be no more mutated mitochondria and everything is ready to go forward. If signs it's still too preliminary for that and that's one of them. Factors that people are considering there on the advisory committee to the -- day. And and I would assume that. Important woman has this gene or there's carrier can you find out about it with tests. He had a ticket question. So. Just like any other illness. That can be -- range here sometimes people are not aware that they -- each patient and mitochondria until adulthood immediately don't mind at all. In certain circumstances for example when you have -- -- fierce and then he might be more likely to be -- But when it comes to time learning about that for child. One of the complicating -- -- and it from a -- perspective. You can't just look an excelled in the laboratory of embryo and think for sure okay well. Child well not as many mutations. There it would interest in about mitochondria DNA. If and it can be such variation from Alex now -- for example he went looking for pre implantation genetic I noticed literally. Looking at early embryonic cells to say okay. The look and he's not looking at if you look at -- Not necessarily representative of what I'll be a national all the chronic. So little facility that. In fact I think you mentioned in your article London based no fuel counsel -- bioethics. And did consider to be ethical ramifications. Of this approach concluded. Better -- say you've been effective and as long as proper information and support or offered let's say they go with that and end. And it proved. To be affected. Effective can they find out if a woman that is threatened web parts I mean if you have the answer. Can you find out. If there's a problem. So that the -- is more aimed to. You looked as if the mother knows that she -- -- and -- and -- -- a country and she. Yeah so she. Through lab testing on that actually have gone to her attention and or -- education and approached her and say I'm concerned about different take a look and the laboratory. We didn't just say good the lab testing is for the complicated and I've always -- Yes Atlanta has referring -- -- -- about the child not to mother them that they can get initiated their mothers prompting yet. She was -- not as complicated to my understanding. -- Two -- getting. A woman could find out. Its responsibility to she carried it's. Right. And at that point cheek who adopt or use and -- vitro fertilization and. She didn't actually not concerned about being genetically related to -- map collection could adopt. All right. 11 final course from where do you see just going from here going back to. Testing on mice for years and years or in places like Britain is this something where. It may get implemented -- find out sooner. Well my crystal ball a little cloudy -- decade. I. Now we're gonna make good talk to -- your bio science just couldn't work with. But it sounds like at least -- community with concluding that I think committee to FDA that here in the US they felt that more animal trials are needed before we could proceed with human clinical trial. Now in the UK it sounds like confrontation may move a little faster and and that -- -- are. Parliament this year is taking not to issue still possible that. The UK make it to green -- to the fund -- this 49 states and then perhaps the United States looked. Across the pond for guidance on how they went there when there informing our own decisions about what to do. Do you know I think I understand a little bit better because you're -- -- time we have agreed to -- and create. And me coming right back governor bill -- celebrity jail -- 53 yeah.